Sweet Orange, Lemon, Bergamont, Kumquat

The volatile components found in orange essential oil seem to exhibit anti carcinogenic effects. A study done in 2003 by the institute of cosmetics sciences reported that the primary component in citrus oils, limonene was responsible for causing apoptosis in human leukemic (HL-60) Cells.  [PMID: 14758720]  A randomized clinical trial in 2012 showed that orange essential oil was able to reduce pain and anxiety in patients who were admitted with fractured limbs at an emergency ward. [PMID: 29123351] The high levels of limonene found in citrus oils seem to have radical scavenging activity. Orange essential oil seems to inhibit these bacteria's : Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. [PMID: 29976894] Lemon essential oil "showed cytotoxic effects against human prostate, lung and breast cancer cells" [PMID: 29976894] Lemon essential oil increases fat burning properties in fat cells by activating sympathetic nerves in white adipose tissue. The Irish Journal of Education published in 2005 reported that lemon EO "significantly enhanced attention level, concentration, cognitive performance, mood, and memory of students during the learning process" Lemon EO also holds potent antibacterial properties. Inhalation of bergamont essential oil seems to reduce anxiolytic behaviors by reducing corticosterone.


[PMID: 14758720] Hata T, Sakaguchi I, Mori M, et al. Induction of apoptosis by Citrus paradisi essential oil in human leukemic (HL-60) cells. In Vivo. 2003;17(6):553-559.

[PMID: 29123351] Hekmatpou D, Pourandish Y, Farahani PV, Parvizrad R. The Effect of Aromatherapy with the Essential Oil of Orange on Pain and Vital Signs of Patients with Fractured Limbs Admitted to the Emergency Ward: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Indian J Palliat Care. 2017;23(4):431-436. doi:10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_37_17

[PMID: 29976894] Dosoky NS, Setzer WN. Biological Activities and Safety of Citrus spp. Essential Oils. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(7):1966. Published 2018 Jul 5. doi:10.3390/ijms19071966